Following a consultation that ended on 28th February 2013, UKTAG has finalised its recommendations on 1) biological standards for rivers, lakes, coastal and estuaries and 2) phosphorus standards for rivers.
Aquatic benthic invertebrates, of which chironomids are the largest family, are good indicators of nutrient enrichment and can be used to assess lake water quality. Passively drifting pupal skins accumulating at the lake leeward shore are easily collected.
Benthic invertebrate communities are good indicators of acidification which is caused by acidic pollution from precipitation and acids leaching from the surrounding soils. Benthic invertebrates are easily suited to biological monitoring as they are common, widespread and easily sampled.